Volume 21 - Issue 1
Deliverance: The Evolution of a Doctrineby Stephen Hunt
Throughout the 20th century, the controversial subject of exorcism has been something of an embarrassment to the established church in a rational and secular world. Historically, the rite of exorcism had largely been accompanied by discretion and kept within the ambit of ecclesiastical authority. Until recently, the position of the Church of England (in the Canons of 1903/4), which in mode has been very similar to that of the Roman Catholic Church, stipulated that there needed to be formal permission by the Bishop. In practice this was rarely exercised.
In the mainstream churches ‘caution’ is the catchword in the whole area of exorcism. The prevailing attitude, as made clear by many of the official pronouncements, is to defer to medical interpretations. Typical is the Methodist Conference’s ‘Statement on Exorcism’, published by the Methodist Church Division of Social Responsibility in 1976, which argued that it should only be entered into after a thorough pastoral investigation and in close collaboration with medically qualified practitioners and the social services.1 The General Assembly of the Church of Scotland received a report of its Working Party on Parapsychology (21 May 1976) which tackled ‘the vexed question of exorcism’ and concluded that the practice ‘does more harm than good’ and that ‘it effects nothing that cannot be accomplished by the expeditious use of medical skills and pastoral care’ (paragraphs 36, 45 and 51).
The timing of these statements is significant because it was clear in the 1970s that exorcism was back on the agenda for the churches in Britain generally, and that ‘deliverance’ as a form of ‘lesser exorcism’ had also gained a heightened profile. Practitioners in deliverance, however, had been active as early as the 1950s in Britain. Most operated covertly, as they were subject to a great deal of derision and condemnation since they dealt in no uncertain way with the spiritual oppression of Christians. The first editions of books on the subject were literally sold under the counter of some Christian bookshops until the mid–1980s, although, amongst charismatics at least, such books have now become more acceptable. The reasons as to why deliverance now enjoys a wider acknowledgment are extremely complex and I have sought to show below that the growing practice has come with the expansion of the Pentecostal and charismatic renewal movements of the 20th century, and as a result of the confluence of distinct but overlapping developments within both the church at large and the secular world.
In charismatic circles, the distinction between ‘exorcism’ and ‘deliverance’ is an indispensable one, although it remains true that the terms still remain poorly defined. Stated simply, the distinction is that exorcism is administered to those who are demonically ‘possessed’ and deliverance is for those who are merely ‘oppressed’. This distinction is not particularly new. Roman Catholicism has traditionally distinguished between a ‘major’ and ‘lesser’ exorcism as if there were graduations of the need for demonic expulsion where, according to one Catholic commentator, ‘full’ exorcism is only relevant when an evil spirit ‘doubtless dominates the body, seizes its organs and uses them as if it were its own’.2 In the Anglican church, vestiges of the practice of minor (or ‘lesser’) exorcism remain. For instance, in the Baptism Service of the Alternative Service Book (1980), the traditional rite of the making of a catechumen has been restored. The renunciation of evil is followed by the giving of the sign of the cross and a minor exorcism signified in the words: ‘May almighty God deliver you from the powers of darkness, and lead you in the light and obedience of Christ’.
The question of the legitimacy of deliverance has resulted from the vexed theological issue, which has concerned the evangelical world in recent years, of whether Christians can ‘have’ an evil spirit. In the charismatic movement, the dispute is all but settled with a positive affirmation. It is argued, in simple terms, that Christians cannot be possessed, that is, totally controlled by an ‘unclean spirit’, since this would be a contradiction in terms. Nevertheless, it is possible for Christians to be ‘oppressed’, ‘bothered by’, ‘in bondage to’, demonic forces. While the spirit, the innermost being, of the Christian is the temple of the Holy Spirit, the outer regions of the person, body and personality, can be ‘infested’.3 A certain amount of confusion, however, still remains in charismatic doctrines. The theological difficulties arise partly because of the spatial model of being indwelt by the Spirit of God. The usual model is that of the Christian’s life as a battle zone where the Holy Spirit and the sinful nature meet in confrontation.4
All this is very much more than mere subtle theological semantics. It amounts to a precise belief that evil spirits can exercise considerable influence over certain aspects of a Christian’s life. In turn, this is often perceived as a product of ‘spiritual warfare’, in which the Christian is under the relentless attack of demonic agencies. Moreover, while it is argued that some deliverance may take place at conversion, the Christian also has to deal with the legacy of sin which remains. The believer, then, is viewed as subject to the consequences of a fallen world in much the same way as a non-Christian, and has the same physical and emotional health problems, as well as sharing in the consequences of Satan’s assault. The act of deliverance, therefore, becomes a weapon in the armoury of the ‘born-again’ Christian.5
According to contemporary charismatic teachings, an evil spirit may enter through some open ‘legal doorway’, or when a Christian’s ‘defences are down’. Under the first rubric we find the area of ‘habitual sin’, that is, ‘ungodly habits’ developed before conversion and which persist under demonic influences. Ancestral curses and sins are also a ‘legitimate’ basis for demonic activity, which may hold the Christian in ‘bondage’. The theological justification offered for this doctrine is rooted in the curses outlined in the book of Deuteronomy on those who act against the covenant law (Dt. 27). They are regarded as still relevant today. The punishment for transgressing the law is eventually carried out by evil spirits and passed on through generational lines in the form of spiritual and perhaps physical affliction. Under another rubric is placed emotional traumas of various kinds experienced by Christians (both before and after conversion) which can also open doorways to evil spirits. Like ancestral sins, these emotional problems may not be a direct result of the actions of convinced Christians. Indeed, they may result from sins perpetuated by others, for instance, sexual abuse.6
Classical Pentecostalism and deliverance
For the most part, these doctrines reverse the earlier teachings of classical Pentecostals who maintained that it was the unsaved, not Christians, who needed deliverance. A significant number of Pentecostal writers have traditionally made a distinction between demonic possession and demonic ‘influence’ but have categorically denied that Christians could have an evil spirit which was somehow ‘indwelling’.7 This is clear in the official statement of the General Assembly of the Assemblies of God: ‘Can Born-Again Believers Be Demon Possessed?’ (Nottingham, May 1972). The condemnation of this doctrine has also been made very clear in a critique of the practice of modern charismatics in one of the Assembly of God’s major publications.8 In this, the Pentecostals are at one with the views of conservative evangelicals.9 At first glance, therefore, it might appear curious that it was Pentecostalism that initially provided the impetus for the deliverance ministry as applied to Christians.
After the great Pentecostal revivals of the early 20th century, the major bodies came out against the practice of deliverance for Christians. Andrew Walker has attributed this opposition to the essentially ‘evangelical’ nature of the movement, which was aggressively outward-looking and Christ-centred, and, consequently, left ‘its demonism in the wake of excitement and enthusiasm’. Secondly, Pentecostals were too entranced with their own tongue-speaking, healings and worship to be ‘bewitched by beguiling theories of demonism’.10 Be this as it may, the Pentecostal movement did develop a strong dualist emphasis on the conflict between good and evil spheres, which allowed little room for the concerns of the natural universe. Quite possibly, this outlook has been enhanced by the social marginality of the movement and the (perceived or real) persecution experienced at the hands of the secular world and of non-Pentecostal Christians. Whatever the origins of this strong dualist theology, the worldview which fostered an acceptance of the active nature of demonic forces ‘gave a momentum to the practice of deliverance on the unsaved in the missionary field at home and abroad’.11
One of the first struggles of the early Pentecostals was against the teachings of Jessie Penn-Lewis, who befriended one of the great leaders of the Welsh revival, Evan Roberts. With him, she wrote the book War on the Saints, which was denounced and banned by the Pentecostal churches. The publication amounts to a detailed account of how the demonization of Christians occurs and includes a graphic description of the infiltration of various parts of the physical body.12 Although conservative evangelicals have sometimes been keen to expose the Pentecostals as charlatans and fanatics, as far as all things demonic are concerned, some have recognized that their practice of deliverance was a major weapon on the mission field. It was held by Pentecostals to be important as part of the ‘power encounter’ with pagan religions and could be viewed as an integral part of the proselytizing venture, and of an impressive church growth strategy. However, in their proselytizing endeavours, the Pentecostals opposed those on the fringes of the movement who claimed to have a specialized ministry in deliverance. Indeed, it was argued that there was no distinct spiritual gift related to exorcism or deliverance, merely the special gift of ‘spiritual discernment’ as part of the protection of the church against false teachers, demonically inspired or otherwise.
One of the reasons why these idiosyncratic characters emerged on the periphery of Pentecostalism, and for whom the theological debates were largely superfluous, was that the established Pentecostal churches had few clarified doctrinal statements on demonology and exorcism. One important exception is Duffield and Van Cleave’s Foundations of Pentecostal Theology.13 Much of the Pentecostal literature has tended to be a reworking of earlier evangelical commentaries on the subject.
There were several Pentecostals who furthered the interest in deliverance and had stimulated a concern with the demonic in the 1930s and after the Second World War. Two examples will suffice. One was the Indian healer, L. Jeevaratham, who had experienced some theological training with the Assemblies of God, and significantly advanced teachings related to evil spirits. Some Pentecostals from the mainstream organizations were profoundly influenced, especially by the way he attempted to cast out evil spirits at public meetings. Another important figure within the classical Pentecostal structure was J. Hornell whose book Concerning Demons: Questions and Answers introduced a more coherent demonology and was, in Pentecostal terms, a best-seller: 1,000 copies in 1936, 10,000 in 1937, and 4,000 as late as 1949.14
The mid-century itinerant healing ministries
After the Second World War, a good deal of the momentum for the practice of deliverance came from the itinerant quasi-Pentecostal ministries. Many of these were a product of the widespread healing and evangelizing campaigns in the USA. They included A.A. Allen (1911–70) who was perhaps the most strident Pentecostal of the 1950s and early 1960s and whose demonology appears to be close to that of the Latter-Day Rain movement that arose in the USA in the late 1940s within Pentecostalism. The ‘Holiness’ strand of Pentecostalism, which was exemplified by the ‘Latter-Day’ movement, was essentially a protest against the rise of formal church organization and what was perceived as the Pentecostals’ increasing worldliness and moral ineptitude. At the same time it had developed a profound awareness of the forces of evil. A typical prayer ran: ‘I pray, purify me from all the evils that cling to me.… Bind all powers that whisper temptation and eavesdrop, and the calling voices of magical powers …’15
Allen wrote copiously on demonic oppression and possession and advanced the idea that Christians could ‘have’ a demon. It became fashionable in his churches to talk of spirits with particular attributes: ‘jealousy’, ‘lust’, and ‘anger’.16 Allegedly, Allen even spoke of the ‘spirit of nicotine’. This all gave a lead to the modern charismatic movement’s concern with demons associated with specific conditions and maladies. From the ‘Holiness’ tradition also came the late Oral Roberts who pioneered ‘slaying in the Spirit’, especially in the context of deliverance. Roberts is the link between deliverance and the impetus emerging from the ‘Faith’ movement and the ‘health and wealth’ theology in the USA. The leading exponent of the latter, Kenneth Hagin, with his vast international ministry in the USA, was inspired by Roberts, and subsequently began to develop his distinctive dualist theology.
There were also alternative channels in the development of deliverance theology amongst the itinerant healing ministries. William Branham (1909–65), a somewhat unusual figure, who claimed to have his own personal guardian angel, launched into warfare with demons, and ‘diagnosed’ illness through the colours of auras. Like A.A. Allen, he was eventually disowned by the established Pentecostal churches. Two men associated with Branham also proved to be influential. One was Ern Blaxter, who was later to become a major figure in the so-called ‘Shepherding’ or ‘Discipleship’ movement. Among other teachings, Blaxter stressed the exclusiveness of male leadership within the church, and attacked feminism, which he interpreted as ‘the spirit of Jezebel’. The other is Paul Cain, who maintains that he is a modern prophet and who originally came from a ‘Holiness’ background. For a while, he was associated with the Kansas City prophets who, in turn, eventually came under the ‘covering’ or John Wimber’s Vineyard ministry. Cain has claimed to have been inspired in the area of deliverance by the teachings of the famous ‘Faith’ minister, Hobart Freeman, who produced a great deal of literature on demonology and the occult.
The Fort Lauderdale Five
In discussing the rise of the deliverance ministry, the influence of the ‘Fort Lauderdale Five’, of which Blaxter was a member, cannot be ignored. The FLF was a group of individuals, largely from a Pentecostal background, who came together on the basis of a number of common theological interests. Another key member was Don Basham (1926–89), whose major publication was: Can a Christian have a Demon?, which included a graphic account of a girl demonically oppressed and subsequently delivered.17 Basham argued, like many others since, that the perception of the need for the deliverance of Christians came through the experience of those with a healing ministry. He put forward what he believed was the biblical basis for the practice and may have been the first to use ‘words of knowledge’ within the context of deliverance; that is, a belief that the Holy Spirit identifies through us an evil spirit and its ‘nature’.18 In this practice he may well have been influenced by the healing evangelist Maxwell Whyte, whom he witnessed ‘delivering’ a ‘demon of asthma’ and a ‘demon of smoking’, which were vomited out.19
Derek Prince, another member of the FLF, is possibly the most important figure in furthering the demonology behind deliverance. Some of the leading practitioners today, such as Frank Hammond and Bill Subritzky, pay tribute to the work of Prince (the latter having been trained at Prince’s Fuller Ministry). Prince had pioneered a belief in the hidden prevalence of witchcraft in the USA and spoke of demons as disembodied spirits trying to control human beings, and of dark angelic powers attempting to dominate churches, cities and other geographical areas. (These teachings corresponded with those of Peter Wagner at Fuller Seminary in California, where John Wimber taught.) Prince has also been largely responsible for developing teachings of ancestral spirits, and the alleged demonic implications of self-curses, generational curses and ‘soulish prayers’, through his very influential work Blessing or Curse.20 Prince’s teachings also overlapped with those of the non-charismatic theologian, Dr Kurt Koch, who had a considerable impact on the emerging charismatic movement with his work on deliverance and the demonic origins of much mental illness. Koch had attempted to show beyond dispute that involvement in the occult could produce dire emotional and spiritual effects ‘to the third and fourth generation’, with the implication that Christians were also susceptible.21
Another quasi-Pentecostal group which advanced deliverance was the Full Gospel Business Men’s Federation International. This organization constituted a somewhat new type of Pentecostal, wealthy, with a vision for an international ministry endeavour. It not only practised deliverance ministry, but also produced copious literature on the subject.22 The most serious controversy in the early history of the Federation involved the public deliverance of Christians, and this was one of the reasons why it was initially denied access to American television networks. Nevertheless, the movement grew quickly in the 1970s to the point of working closely with charismatics in Britain’s mainline denominations.23
The renewal movement
Deliverance gradually grew as a practice in the charismatic renewal movement both within the mainline denominations and the independent ‘house churches’. Often it was perceived by charismatics as being all part of ‘the present moving of the Spirit’ and the renewal of the church.24 At the same time, it coincided with the wider interest in ‘divine healing’ by Catholic and Protestant neo-Pentecostalists. As part of their concern with healing, the charismatics had developed a fascination for secular counselling, which was then applied to those in need of therapy within the churches. Some critics of the present deliverance ministry have argued that it is merely a form of ‘spiritualized psychotherapy’; in particular, an expression of ‘encounter’ counselling/therapy overlaid with a ‘spirit gloss’. Many sceptics have speculated that practitioners have taken the Christian psychologist Frank Lake’s teachings of ‘rebirth’ to their most extreme conclusions. From this perspective, deliverance mirrors the secular world’s preoccupation with psychotherapy and emotional healing.
There is some evidence to support this claim. More than a few of the leading practitioners had begun in counselling before embracing the deliverance ministry. A good number were only later to join the charismatic movement. It is not surprising, then, that today, deliverance ministries are not afraid to tackle emotional/psychological problems which are of great interest to the secular world, especially related to problems in personal relationships.25 They do so in the case of anorexia nervosa and of bulimia. The former is essentially viewed as a demonic force, ‘a spirit of suicide, self-hate, or self-destruction’ which manifests itself as ‘suicide by starvation’, the result of unforgiveness and bitterness. With bulimia, the origins are said to include the spirit of ‘the fear of starvation’ along with a ‘little girl spirit’, where the woman is trapped in some childhood state as a result of experiencing a past emotional trauma.26
At the time that the charismatic churches had established an interest in counselling, another set of problems had begun to beset the church at large. In the widely read article in Theological Renewal in 1982, which constituted part of the continuing debate on Michael Green’s I believe in Satan’s Downfall, John Richards stated: ‘The ministry of deliverance and exorcism are not the prerogative of the renewal, and the majority of those in the ’60s and ’70s who engaged in these ministries … brought to it a great appreciation of the scriptural accounts because of what they were meeting, rather than bringing a fundamentalism to their pastoral caring’.27
In the growing acceptance of deliverance, Richards’ work But Deliver Us From Evil was a landmark.28For nine years previously, he had worked with the Bishop of Exeter’s Study Group on Exorcism, conducted a number of conferences, and written extensively on exorcism and deliverance. The report indicated that many Anglican clergy felt out of their depth in the area of exorcism and that they were inadequately prepared to deal with the implications at parish level of the ‘Occult Explosion’. At the end of the 1970s, many Christian books emerged stressing the dangers of the occult and often advocating exorcism. These were not, for the most part, theologically scholarly, but were written by those involved in pastoral work. The secular media also found news in the bizarre and tragic consequences of the activities of those not properly trained in the ministry, notably the notorious ‘Barnsley case’, where a man murdered his wife during an exorcism in 1975. With these considerations, the Christian Study Group on Exorcism produced the well-known publication Deliverance.29 Whether or not there was a justifiable need for such a publication, its detailed account of the ministry gave an extra momentum to the practice in charismatic circles.30
Within the charismatic churches, there were also Christians claiming to experience demonic oppression very often because of pre-conversion involvement in the occult. Some practitioners had entered the deliverance ministry precisely for this reason. Typical was Mike Costello, a former Baptist minister in London, who embarked on the practice when some individuals in his church believed that they were demonically oppressed because of occultist interests, or because of their involvement in eastern religions or the use of psychedelic drugs prior to conversion. It was Costello who invited the leading American exponent of deliverance, Frank Hammond, to Britain. In addition, he published the unabridged reprint of Penn-Lewis’s War on the Saints in 1973 through the Diazaso Trust, which is dedicated to warning Christians of the implications of occultist activities.
Pentecostal ministers have been included among those who were at the forefront of developing the deliverance ministry in Britain since the 1970s. One is John Barr, an Elim pastor in east London. Barr himself came from a gypsy family and was once caught up in the occult. His interest in deliverance grew when evangelizing on the streets of London. Here he dealt with drug addicts and alcoholics whom he found difficult to cure and perceived that the root was demonic. Among those he claims have inspired him are the Anglican Trevor Dearing, Frank Hammond and Derek Prince. Although Barr’s ministry has not always endeared him to the leadership of Elim, his effect on charismatics and Restorationist churches has been considerable. It was Barr who largely won over Gerald Coates and Roger Forster, the leaders of the Pioneers and Ichthus respectively, to the legitimacy of the deliverance of Christians.
Other Pentecostal churches which have accepted the same teachings are those generally located in areas where there are several non-white ethnic groups and a whole variety of cultures not originating in Britain. Some, like Kensington Temple (Elim) and New Life Centre in Croydon (Assemblies of God), are among the largest congregations of any churches in the country. Their flourishing deliverance ministries largely derive from the demands of black converts previously involved in occultism or non-Christian religions. John Edwards, the pastor at New Life, is one of the most well-known in the deliverance ministry, although his doctrines have led to him being banned from teaching in some Pentecostal churches in the USA and France.
Restorationism, post-millenarianism and deliverance
Restorationism is a distinct strand of the charismatic movement in Britain, one which began outside the established church structures.31 Significantly, some of the earliest advocates of Restorationism had taken an interest in deliverance. As early as 1962, Cecil Cousen seemed to be hinting that Christians might need deliverance as a result of demonic oppression.32 Another was Sid Purse, who ran a deliverance ministry based in Chard, Somerset, which attracted people from all over the world. A third figure was G.W. North who wrote a series of articles lamenting the use of psychiatry in Christian counselling and argued that many of the symptoms commonly recognized as symptoms of physical, emotional and psychological problems, may have demonic origins. North argued that in ‘extreme cases’ it was possible for hereditary ‘family demons’ to be imprinted on patterns of behaviour over generations.33
Since these early contributions, deliverance has come to rest upon a quite distinct and elaborate demonology and eschatology. To at least some extent, this was due to the influence of the Fort Lauderdale Five. In the 1970s the FLF functioned as the American connection with British Restorationism, especially with Derek Prince and others speaking at the Downs and Dales Bible Weeks. Without wishing to simplify the theological contribution of Restorationism, it has become increasingly clear that the demonology it teaches has foundations in post-millenarianism and shares common elements with the so-called Third Wave movement.
An important aspect of both is the notion that the Christian church, in the Last Days, is being restored to being a dynamic spiritual force and returning to many of the practices of the NT church which had subsequently been lost over the centuries. This includes gaining a greater understanding of the demonic than ever before. The resultant demonology identifies an organized and hierarchical satanic kingdom waging war on human social structures and wreaking havoc in the lives of individuals through spiritual, emotional and physical infliction. The deliverance ministry is, therefore, seen as returning to the church at precisely the time the spiritual warfare intensifies and is part of the overarching cosmic struggle. This makes the church an aggressive and militant force divinely equipped to make assaults upon Satan’s realm.34
Another function of deliverance, which is linked to the post-millenarian eschatology, is concerned with the cleansing and restoring of the church as part of the preparation for the Second Coming of Christ. While deliverance is applied on the individual level, its wider aim is to purify and free the corporate church of alleged complacency, legalism, and intellectualism, all of which are viewed as products of spiritual oppression.35
Ever since the ‘Third Wave’ conference at the Central Methodist Hall, Westminster, the flagging charismatic movement has been profoundly influenced by John Wimber’s Vineyard International, above all in the area of healing ministry and teachings concerning the demonic.36 Wimber, in turn, had been inspired by the theological strands developed at Fuller Seminary, California, particularly Peter Wagner’s thought. Wimber’s eschatology is difficult to pin down as ‘post-millennial’, but his strategy of ‘equipping the saints’ also carries the idea of cleansing and purifying the church before the Second Coming. His appeal, however, is derived from his ‘kingdom theology’ and the stress upon ‘signs and wonders’. Kingdom theology allows the possibility of God bursting through into the physical world through the faith of Christians. Thus Christians are said to be able to perform healings and cast out evil spirits as Christ had done. Wimber’s ministry has had a profound effect on charismatic churches in the traditional ‘mainline’ denominations, especially Anglican and Baptist. The impact on the principal Restorationist churches has also been considerable, including Pioneers, Ichthus and New Frontiers. In the area of deliverance, the major exponents of Vineyard’s teachings are Ellel Ministries in Lancaster led by Peter Horrobin, who has also been influenced by the New Zealander, Bill Subritzky. This ministry epitomizes the endeavour to conduct deliverance within the context of spiritual warfare. It is perhaps the most coherent expression of post-millennial theology and is said to have taken Wimber’s teachings to their furthest conclusions, with deliverance taking place in audiences numbering several thousand, by evoking the Holy Spirit.37
In this article I have sought to sketch the development of the deliverance ministry in Britain. It would be unfair to attempt a theological assessment in a few concluding words. Clearly its various features are very controversial. These have had publicity, including recently in the media. In the light of this, it is worth remarking that reports of abuse or serious malpractice in the deliverance ministry are relatively infrequent. However, cases such as that outlined in the Church of England Newspaper (9 December 1994) identifying alleged sexual abuse of ‘clients’ also damage reputations, including reputations of well-meaning practitioners. Moreover, such abuses do expose the church generally to unfavourable criticisms. That is why the method is so important. Most practitioners are apparently earnest individuals who share a considerable concern for the spiritual welfare of Christians and non-Christians alike. Questions will undoubtedly still continue to be asked in the foreseeable future as to the real viability of deliverance as a healing method. The theological questions are urgent and it is hoped that our survey will provide an informed indication of what those questions are.
1 Quoted in M. Perry (ed.), Deliverance (London: SPCK, 1987), p. 112.
2 F. Marquart, Exorcism and Diabolical Manifestations (London: Sheed & Ward, 1951).
3 N. Wright, The Fair Face of Evil (London: Marshall Pickering, 1989), p. 125.
4 Ibid., p. 126.
5 F. and M. Hammond, Pigs in the Parlour (Chichester: New Wine, 1992, p. 56.
6 B. Subritzky, Demons Defeated (Chichester: Sovereign World, 1992), p. 192.
7 C.M. Conn, The Anatomy of Evil (Longley, n.d.).
8 Redemption magazine, ‘Deliverance from Evil?’ (Feb. 1990), pp. 13–17.
9 P. Masters, The Healing Epidemic (London: Wakeman, 1991); A. Morrison, The Serpent and the Cross(Birmingham: K. & M. Brooks, 1994).
10 A. Walker, ‘The Devil you thought you knew’, in T. Smail, A. Walker and N. Wright, Charismatic Renewal. The Search for A Theology (London: SPCK, 1989).
11 R.M. Anderson, Visions of the Disinherited: The Making of American Pentecostalism (New York: 1979).
12 J. Penn-Lewis and E. Roberts, War on the Saints (London: Diazaso Trust, 1973).
13 Z. Duffield and Z. Van Cleave, Foundations of Pentecostal Theology (1983).
14 Nottingham: Assemblies of God Publications, n.d.
15 Quoted in W. Hollenweger, The Pentecostals (London: SCM Press, 1972), p. 144.
16 A.A. Allen, Demon Possession Today and How to Be Free (Dallas: Allen, 1953).
FLF The Fort Lauderdale Five
17 D. Basham, Can a Christian have a Demon? (Kirkwood: Impact Books, 1991).
18 Idem, Deliver Us From Evil (Washington: Chosen Books, 1972).
19 Ibid., p. 61.
FLF The Fort Lauderdale Five
20 D. Prince, Blessings or Curse. You Can Choose (Milton Keynes: Word Publishing, 1990).
21 K. Koch, e.g., Demonology, Past and Present (Grand Rapids: Kregal, 1972).
22 D.G. Buckley, Exposure of Seducing Spirits (Full Gospel Deliverance Crusade, 1966).
23 P. Hocken, Streams of Renewal (Exeter: Paternoster, 1986).
24 M. Harper, Spiritual Warfare (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1970).
25 F. Hammond, Soul Ties (USA: The Children’s Bread Ministry, 1988).
26 B. Banks, Deliverance from Fat and Eating Disorders (Kirkwood: Impact Books, 1988), pp. 34–40 and p. 69 respectively.
27 J. Richards, K. Leech and K. Houston, ‘Affirmation and agnostic debate about Satan’s downfall’, Theological Renewal No. 2 (March, 1982), pp. 23–26.
28 J. Richards, But Deliver Us From Evil (London: Darton, Longman & Todd, 1974).
29 Perry (ed.), Deliverance.
30 S. Pattison, Alive and Kicking: Towards a Practical Theology of Illness (London: SCM, 1989), p. 193.
31 A. Walker, Restoring the Kingdom (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1985).
32 C. Cousen, Voice of Faith (July/August/September 1962), p. 57.
33 G.W. North, e.g., ‘Deliverance—Ancient and Modern’, Voice of Faith No. 4 (Jan/Feb/March 1969), pp. 10–13.
FLF The Fort Lauderdale Five
34 F. and M. Hammond, Pigs in the Parlour, p. 17.
35 N. and P. Gibson, Evicting Demonic Intruders (Chichester: New Wine Press, 1993).
36 T. Stafford, ‘Testing the Wine from John Wimber’s Vineyard’, Christianity Today (8 August 1986), pp. 17–20.
37 D. McBain, Discerning the Spirits (Basingstoke: Marshall Pickering, 1986), p. 183.
Stephen Hunt is a doctoral student and part-time lecturer in the Department of Sociology, University of Reading